What is a butt weld? Square, Groove, V, Double V Explained

Last Updated on Nov 19, 2022

A butt weld is the most frequently used type of joint during the fabrication process for pipeliners. These welders typically do this as a circumferential join weld with the metal puddle applied on the joint.

The joint is built by placing two metal edges against each other and then welding the joint. A butt requires both metals to be on the same plan with the weld metal also  on the same plane, resulting in a non-overlapping outcome.

Butt welds commonly use copper as filler material since they are commonly used on piping. Copper has high strength, durability, and can last which is why it’s a common material used.

  • High strength
  • Easy to weld
  • Easy to inspect quality
  • Limited application, commonly used with pipes
  • Sensitive to surface conditions

What is the difference between a butt weld and a fillet weld?

Fillet welds and butt welds are the two core types of continuous weld. Fillet welds are common used for corner, t, and lap joints.

  • Fillet weld types – Miter, concave, convex
  • Butt welds – square, grooved, v, double v

what is a butt weld




What are the different types of butt welds?

Square Butt Weld

This type of butt weld is commonly used with 3 / 16” or less thickness metal. This join is not recomended by most welders when the project will be used to high impact or at risk of fatigueing over time due to pressure.

Grooved Butt Weld

Counter to the square butt, the grooved butt is recommended for metals that are thicker than the 3/16 inch thickness mentioned above. Groove welds have two sub-types: single grooved which is only welded on one side, or double-grooved which has grooved on both sides.

The choice between those should primarily be determined based on the thickness of the metal you’ll be working with and what the completed job will be used for.

V Butt Weld

This is mostly used for quarter inch to three quarter inch metal thickness. The V positioning is recommended at a 60 degree angle for plates and 75 degrees for pipes.

A quick note here — the V shape makes this the second most expensive butt weld option because of the filler material volume necessary. However, it produces one of the stronger joints.

Double V Butt Weld

The double v is a highly flexible butt weld and is idea for three quarter inch metal sheets. As you would expect, since this is a double V, it’s the most time comsuming butt weld to prep and build.