Groove Welds – 4 simple steps to a good weld

Last Updated on May 17, 2022

If you’re familiar with the practice of welding, you would know that there are many different types of welds, and each of these different types of welds themselves has a number of different subcategories within them. If the sheer number of different types of welding has ever left you scratching your head, don’t worry; we will help you out.

In this article, we will discuss one particular type of welding in considerable detail, groove welds. Particularly, we will discuss what groove welds are, how they are different from fillet welds, and consider some examples of groove joints, i.e., square, bevel, and flare groove welds.

What are Groove Welds?

As per the American Welding Society (AWS), a groove weld is one that occurs on the surface of a workpiece, between its edges, between its surfaces, or between its edges and surfaces. Groove welds are really just channels cut into the work piece’s surface or an aperture between two joint elements that provides room for weld metal to be contained. Single groove welds exist in nine different varieties, whereas double groove welds exist in a total of seven different varieties.

Also, note that (with the exception of square groove welds and flare groove welds) all groove welds need metal to be removed from one or both sides of the workpiece in question.

At this point, you will want to acquaint yourself with some welding terminology. So, here are a couple of things you’ll need to know:

First, you should know that welding positions are denoted by an assigned number as well as either the letter F or G. As you might have guessed already, “F” stands for fillet welds, whereas “G” stands for Groove welds.

Here are examples of the most basic welding positions, including their correct denotation:

  • Flat position: (1F or 1G) denoted by the number 1 and is categorized as a 1F or 1G based on whether it is a fillet weld or a groove weld.
  • Horizontal position: (2F or 2G) denoted by the number 2 and is either classified as a 2F or a 2G based on whether it is a fillet weld or a groove weld.
  • Vertical position: (3F or 3G) denoted by the number 3 and classified as a 3F or a 3G based on whether it is a fillet weld or a groove weld.
  • Overhead position: (4F or 4G) denoted by the number 4 and classified as a 4F or 4G based on whether it is a fillet weld or a groove weld.

What are the different types of Groove Joints?

Groove joints can be categorized as either single or double joints. When we say single joints, we refer to one side of the joint and when we say double joint, we are referring to both sides of the joint. All in all, these joints are categorized one of the following:

  • V grooves
  • J grooves
  • U grooves
  • Scarf
  • Square Groove
  • Flare V Grooves
  • Flare Bevel Groove

Now, we will consider the most popular of these in further detail:

Square Groove Welds

A square groove weld is characterized by the cross-section of the weld having a square or rectangular shape. There are two ways to get this weld. First, it can be cut out of the material itself or second, it can be created by separating both of the components apart from each other. The square groove weld is quite popular in its use. This is mainly due to the fact that this is relatively cheap to manufacture.

These groove welds are typically used as metal sheets (for materials below 5 millimetres in thickness).

Bevel Groove Welds

Bevel groove welds are characterized by their components having a bevel cut on the connecting edge. These welds are fairly popular, and they’re most commonly used on thicker materials to make them easier to weld. Additionally, the bevel groove weld is used when only a single connecting component is modifiable. We briefly discuss some types of bevel groove welds in the lines that follow.

One type of bevel groove weld is known as the bevel groove with a broad root face weld. This type of weld does not cut all the way through the face.

Another type of bevel groove weld is known as the double bevel groove. This weld is when the other side of the same component also gets a bevel applied to it. Typically, these welds are utilized for thicker materials since it requires less weld filler. An added benefit of the double bevel is that the second weld cancels the disfiguration of the material in one direction.

Flare Groove Welds

Flare grooves connect one or both joining pieces are connected using a radius. Depending on whether one or both pieces have a radius, flare groove welds are classified as either flare bevel grooves or flare V-grooves. Flare groove welding is typically found in sheet metal flanges and pipes.

Flare V groove welds are a type of groove welds that are welded with a radius on both components. These types of welds are often.

On the other hand, flare bevel groove welds have only one component that has a radius, while the other one possesses a flat surface. Typically, these welds are used in metal sheets to connect flanges.

Fillet Welds vs Groove Welds – What is the difference

Fillet welds are used to join two pieces of metal, forming a right angle (or just an angle). These welds can either be found as tee joints, where the two pieces of metal are fused at a right angle or a lap joint, where the two pieces of metal overlap and are welded towards their edges. Fillet welds usually come in some form of triangular shape, which may contain concave, concave, or a flat surfaces- depending on the technique the welder uses. The most typical use of a fillet weld is perhaps to attach flanges and pipes.

In contrast, as we’ve mentioned earlier, a groove weld is described as an aperture between two joint elements that allows the metal to be contained. Groove welds are a close second to fillet welds in terms of popularity, and they come in 7 different varieties of joints.

A groove weld is one that occurs on the surface of a workpiece, between its edges, between its surfaces, or between its edges and surfaces. These welds come in 7 varieties of joints, namely:

  • V grooves
  • J grooves
  • U grooves
  • Scarf
  • Square Groove
  • Flare V Grooves
  • Flare Bevel Groove

The most popular of these are square groove welds, bevel groove welds, and flare groove welds – each with its unique set of uses in the ambit of welding. Fillet welds, like groove welds, are a form of welding, but they are distinct from the latter since they join their components at an angle (or a right angle).